The Volcano Adventure Guide: Excellent information and background for anyone wishing to visit active volcanoes safely and enjoyably. The book presents guidelines to visiting 42 different volcanoes around the world.
Ubinas is Peru's most active volcano. A small, 1.4-km-wide caldera cuts the top of the volcano. The steep-walled, 150-m-deep summit caldera contains an ash cone with a 500-m-wide and 200 m deep crater Debris-avalanche deposits from the collapse of the SE flank of Ubinas about 3700 years ago extend 10 km from the volcano. Widespread plinian pumice-fall deposits from Ubinas include one of Holocene age about 1000 years ago. Holocene lava flows are visible on the volcano's flanks, but historical activity, documented since the 16th century, has consisted of intermittent minor-to-moderate explosive eruptions.
Source: abbreviated from Global Volcanism Program information on Ubinas
A series of explosions occurred at the volcano on 2 and 3 Oct. The first (and strongest one) was at 22:50 (local time) followed by two more at 04:24 and 05:52 (local time) and another relatively powerful one in the evening at 17:15 on 3 Oct. ...more
The ash plumes reached more than 2000 m and drifted northeast and light ash falls occurred in the villages of Santa Rosa, Phara Yanapuqui, and Ubinas at 5 km SE of the volcano. The new eruptions, the first explosions since January 2016, came not as a large surprise as Peruvian volcanologists had observed significant changes in the volcano's monitoring data from mid-September, in particular increased seismicity. [less]
Increased degassing from Ubinas volcano on 13 Sep 2016 (image: Melquiades Alvarez / IGP)
The volcano has been showing increased signs of unrest that could herald a new phase of activity in the new future. ...more
Peru's Geophysical Institute (IGP) reported very significant changes in the volcano's seismic activity recently. After a gradual decrease of activity during the first half of the year until May, seismicity started again to pick up since June, indicating a new phase of internal pressure build-up. This trend has become more pronounced since 9 September when volcano-tectonic quakes, caused by internal rock fracturing (possibly due to intruding magma), appeared in greater numbers and with greater energy. Their location was at shallow depths of 3.6 km beneath the summit. These changes are likely a sign of new magma rising within the volcano, which could (but not must) lead to a new phase of eruptions. This scenario becomes more likely after since 13 Sep more sustained gas emissions were observed at the volcano - gasses as the most mobile component of new magma reach the surface first. [less]
A moderately large vulcanian-type explosion occurred at the volcano yesterday 12:53 local time. An ash plume rose 3 km above the crater and drifted SE. Light ash fall occurred in up to 10 km distance, including the villages of Sacohaya, Querapi and Ubinas. ...more
Blue flames of burning sulfur: Ijen volcano in East Java has one of the most impressive sulfur deposits on earth. They are so hot that the sulfur often ignites - a mysterious display at night caught on camera.
Divergent plate boundaries in oceans: Two ocean plates move apart from each other. Hot upwelling mantle material forms magmas that continuously produce new oceanic crust. An ocean widens.
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